If you’ve missed downgrade iOS 9.3.3 or iOS 9.3.3 to iOS 8.4 or newer firmware, then you’ve missed the shot.
Yeah, you’ve got the absolutely correct tone. Apple has closed the door for downgrading iOS 9.3.3 and iOS 9.3.3 to iOS 8.4.1 or iOS 9. This is just a regular practice for Apple to shut down window for signing older version and prevent to downgrade from newer firmware to older one.
Yesterday, when Apple finally put houseful board on iOS 9.3.3 and iOS 9.3.3 and closed the signing windows for downgrading to iOS 8.4 from iOS 9.3.3 and iOS 9.3.3, many users have stuck on firmware without jailbreak. So now, you can’t downgrade iOS 9.3.3, 9.0.1 or iOS 9 and even iOS 9.3.3 to iOS 8.4.1 or iOS 8.4.
Many times revert back to older version is beneficial specially when the jailbreak is available for older version and sometimes when older version is stable enough and best for your device. In current scenario, there is TaiG iOS 8.4 jailbreak available for iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad Mini with iPad Air.
The second thing is, iOS 8.4 and iOS 8.4.1 is stable firmware versions available for iDevices. It has almost everything with long lasting battery life. In short, one can go back to iOS 8.4 after downgrading from iOS 9.3.3 or iOS 9.3.3.
Apple does this often specially when they release newer firmware, they stop signing older version and prevent jailbreak users to downgrade and jailbreak older iOS system. iOS 8.4 runs smoothly on iPad Mini, iPad Air, iPod Touch and iPhone and can be jailbreak as well. Apple knows all these things.
Without running signing window, you can’t downgrade iOS 9.3.3 or downgrade iOS 9.3.3 back to iOS 8.4.1 at any cost. Suppose, you’ve downgraded iOS 9 to iOS 8.4.1, stay tuned on iOS 8.4.1 because PanGu is prepared to release iOS 8.4.1 jailbreak at any time now.
Would you downgrade iOS 9.3.3 to iOS 8.4.1 and jailbreak iOS 8.4.1? Don’t forget to share your thoughts using guest account with email@example.com below.
Playing YouTube in the background isn’t a big deal on iPhone…
Yeah above statement is true all the way. If you’ve device of Apple running any firmware from iOS 5 to iOS 10, you can easily run YouTube videos in Background on your iPhone or iPad.
It’s just need couple of settings and operations to be done before you play YouTube music videos in the background while working, walking, running or just listening songs on your iPod touch or iPhone.
You may want to learn about YouTube videos playing in background because you know that this is the largest library for songs to play on iPhone or iPad for free all the time via internet. You can watch any video of YouTube completely free on your iPhone if you’ve working internet connection.
While listening songs is completely different then watching YouTube videos because basically YouTube streams videos and not songs as MP3 or something like that. But, you can still play those videos in the background to insure your device consume only audio data and not for video and it would play all YouTube videos in background for best music quality.
Normally if you’ve any other devices such as any Samsung Galaxy or Android device then you can’t play YouTube videos while working in the background and it can be done only using PC or computer to play YouTube in background. But, iPhone and iPad users have this advantage because the super feature is available in the control center to play YouTUbe videos as MP3 song on iPod touch or iPhone.
Follow some really simple steps given below…
You must have Safari browser so if you’ve installed Google Chrome on iOS 10 and removed Safari browser, then just reinstall Safari and open YouTube website on your iPhone after connecting your iPhone to internet.
You can use WiFi too to open YouTube website. Once you opened the web page, play any video given on the site which you want to play in the background on your iPhone.
During the play, just tap on home button which would take you to the home page where you need to swipe up to access control center. From control center you can find play button which you need to tap on it.
Once you tap play button, YouTube video would start playing in the background.
Whole process is quite simple and doesn’t require any trick or settings to configure. I hope you understand whole process well. You can post a comment or query if you’ve running iOS 10 on iPhone playing YouTube in the background…
Jailbreak 10 for iPhone, iPad and iPad compatible for Mac, Windows and Linux
Jailbreak iOS 10: Mac developer company testing iOS 10, 10 and iOS 10 firmware for iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch while many security researchers are busy in discovering new exploits and vulnerabilities to jailbreak 10.
If you’re also one of those Cydia users who can’t live without jailbreak, I must say that you have to wait little longer than expected. iOS 10 series of firmware is under beta testing and there is no sign at all about the next major jailbreak 10 release. iOS 10 was the toughest firmware for security researcher to find out new loopholes.
Apple has already rolled out iOS 10 firmware beta releases to the developers and beta testers. Since one and half month of iOS 10 release, there isn’t any sign of jailbreak iOS 10 yet.
According to the jbreak developer, PanGu, there are some exploits available that can be used to jailbreak iOS 10, however, we’re unable to perform complete untethered jailbreak 10 yet, because Apple has patched some key vulnerabilities which were used by TaiG and PanGu in iOS 10 jbreak.
This so called semi jailbreak iOS 10 is not so stable to release for public. PanGu is working on iOS 10 jailbreak and they’d try to release their untethered tool as soon as possible.
Recently, Zerodium a popular game developer website has declare a bounty worth $1 million for the team how release untethered jailbreak or exploits to the firm. iH8sn0w can be winner for the bounty as they uploaded YouTube video showcasing jailbreak iOS 10 earlier last month.
However since the upload of proof, iH8snOw hasn’t published any news about the development of jailbreak iOS 10 or for older firmware. At the end it looks like, TaiG or PanGu team would break down the untethered jbreak iOS 10 tool for iPhone, iPod Touch and a wide range of iPad such as iPad Mini, iPad Air and iPad Pro.
The last working jailbreak 8.4 was released by TaiG for iPhone 6, iPhone 6 Plus, iPhone 5S, iPhone 5C, iPhone 5 and iPhone 4S. The same jbreak 10 tool was capable to jailbreak iPad Mini, iPad Mini 2, iPad Mini 3, iPad Air, iPad Air 2 and iPad older models.
Nowadays, there are bunch of apps available if you want to download paid apps completely free for your iPhone, iPad or any Android devices if you run on Root or jailbreak firmware. But, if you don’t have unrestricted device, it’s really hard task to install any paid app or game on your iPhone.
Tutu app is now available for Android and iOS platform with fully working support without jailbreak or Root your firmware and you can still install your favorite apps or games which are paid completely no charge.
Tutuapp is new for you because it was available only in Chinese language before and recently the developers have updated it to English version too specially for iOS 9.3.5 and Android 6.0. It’s best alternative to vShare, AppiShare and vShare Pro which work similar ways.
If vShare not working on your iPhone without jailbreak, it’s good time to go with TutuApp for iPhone without paying anything to install your favorite paid game or app on your non jailbreak firmware such as iOS 9.3.5.
But, if you’d use TutuApp website, you’d still notice that Chinese language for sure. So, we recommend users to try their iPhone or Android app rather using their website to install apps on your iPhone or iPad.
You can download Tutu app for iPhone or separate Android compatible version of Tutu App for Android device without any extra cost. You can search on our blog that how can you use Tutu app for iPhone.
If you’ve Jailbroken firmware, you can download Tutu app for iPhone directly form Cydia App Store which doesn’t require any configuration or tricks to apply in order to run TutuApp on your iPhone. But, if you’ve iOS 9.3.5 installed which is not jailbroken firmware, you can follow below steps…
First of all, you need to open Safari and access www.Tutuapp.com
You’d see green download button but it may be in Chinese because the developers still updating the app and website in English.
Once the page loaded completely, tap on that green download button and install it on your iPhone.
The system won’t ask you to reboot, but reboot your iPhone once Tutu app is installed on your device.
The same website can be used to download Tutuapp for Android and that doesn’t require Root your Android device at any way.
If you’re facing any difficulties installing Tutu app on your device, just make sure that you’re on your iPhone and take a screenshot of your device and post that in a comment section with your query…
Downgrade to iOS 9.3.3 from iOS 9.3.4 if you want jailbreak…
Apple released an important security update called iOS 9.3.4 to patch PanGu jailbreak iOS 9.3.3. This is regular practice for Apple to release security update without releasing any beta program before release.
This time too, Apple published iOS 9.3.4 to the public directly without testing any beta because it was totally focused to patched iOS 9.3.3 jailbreak vulnerabilities.
Now the result is, iOS 9.3.4 jailbreak is not possible because without working exploits iOS 9.3.4 is not compatible for jailbreak anymore. Thus, the users who have jumped to iOS 9.3.4, they’ve last chance to downgrade iOS 9.3.4 to iOS 9.3.3.
Till now, the signing window is opened and it means you can still downgrade iOS 9.3.4 to iOS 9.3.3 without any trick. But, it’s your luck because Apple may stop signing iOS 9.3.3 firmware anytime in the near future to prevent PanGu jailbreak.
We suggest to downgrade iOS 9.3.4 immediately before Apple take action by stop signing iOS 9.3.3. You would have around a week to decide for downgrade to iOS 9.3.3 from iOS 9.3.4 before it lasts.
If you’ve decided to downgrade iOS 9.3.4 to iOS 9.3.3 right now, you should note below points:
This tutorial which you’re reading is for downgrade iOS 9.3.4 to iOS 9.3.3 only. You can’t go back to iOS 9.3.2 or iOS 9.1.
You can downgrade to iOS 9.3.3 until Apple stop signing iOS 9.3.3.
Backup is very important in order to downgrade or upgrade any firmware.
Verify that Apple still Signs iOS 9.3.3 before making decision to downgrade iOS 9.3.4
You should further inquiry online and check that Apple still signs iOS 9.3.3. There are couple of websites that can be found on Google that verifies firmware signing status. You want to check the status before downgrade iOS 9.3.4 to iOS 9.3.3.
Downgrade from iOS 9.3.4 to iOS 9.3.3
If Apple still signs iOS 9.3.3, below are the steps which you can follow in order to successfully downgrade iOS 9.3.4…
You may have backup iOS 9.3.4 using iTunes. If you haven’t backup yet, we recommend to backup first because downgrade may follow some iTunes error while process.
You’d need iOS 9.3.3 IPSW file which can be downloaded online via Apple server. Download iOS 9.3.3 IPSW based on your iPhone or iPad model number.
Now, connect iPhone to iTunes using Mac or Windows Computer. Without Computer, you won’t downgrade iOS 9.3.4 to iOS 9.3.3 anyway.
Now head to device info page and tap Option Key if you’re on Mac and tap on Shift Key if you’re on Windows Computer.
Here you’d explore iOS 9.3.3 IPSW file in order to downgrade to iOS 9.3.3 from iOS 9.3.4.
iTunes would follow your commands and downgrade iOS 9.3.4 directly to iOS 9.3.3. Within couple of minutes, you’d be on iOS 9.3.3 from iOS 9.3.4.
Note: Suppose anything goes wrong, you can at least restore iOS 9.3.4 from backup that you’ve taken during the first step of this tutorial.
Finally if you’ve decided to go back to iOS 9.3.3 from iOS 9.3.4, step forward immediately. If you found any confusion or difficulties, you can make a comment and explain your query and we’re here to solve them…
Download Downgrade iOS 10 tool to restore iOS 9.3.3 0r iOS 9.3.2 and jailbreak with PanGu tool for free…
So, finally PanGu released iOS 9.1 jailbreak for iPhone, iPad Mini, iPad Air and iPod Touch. iOS 9.1 users are very happy. Are you not happy? Are you on iOS 10? Have you upgraded to iOS 10? OMG! Downgrade iOS 10 immediately to iOS 9.1 and jailbreak 9.1 quickly. You can restore to iOS 9.3.3 back from the newer firmware.
Yeah, if you wanna jailbreak your iPhone, iPad Mini, iPad Air or iPod Touch using PanGu jailbreak with iOS 9.3.2 or iOS 9.3.3, then you must downgrade iOS 10 right now and restore iOS 9.3.3. You can easily downgrade 10 back to iOS 9.3.3 these days, because Apple hasn’t closed signing windows for iOS 9.3.2.
It was said that there won’t be any jailbreak before iOS 10 and iPad Pro. And even couple of tech blogs have said that there would be jailbreak iOS 10 directly for iPhone 7 due to powerful rootless security system. However, PanGu has successfully discovered exploits from iOS 9.1 and released the untethered jailbreak for iPad and iPhone. iOS 9.3.2 is also can be jailbroken using this process.
Now, the users who have accidentally updated their iPhone or iPad to iOS 10 are feeling sad. Believe me, right now it’s completely in your hand to downgrade iOS 10 to iOS 9.3.3 without any tool or software for downgrade to iOS 9.3.3. You don’t need to purchase any downgrade tool for iOS 10 back to iOS 9.3.3.
Apple iOS 9.3.3 signing windows are still open and you’ve chance to come back to iOS 9.3.3 and jailbreak it. You just need to backup your data and restore iOS 9.3.3 from iOS 10 using iTunes.
Just follow some simple steps which are mentioned below…
Before talking any step in order to downgrade iOS 10 and restore iOS 9.3.3, you should back up your data to prevent data lose. Suppose anything goes wrong, your iOS 10 data would be safe. So, backup iOS 10 before restore to iOS 9.3.3.
You need iOS 9.3.3 IPSW for iPhone or iPad. Which can be downloaded easily. So, download iOS 9.3.3 IPSW for iPhone or if you’ve iPad, download iOS 9.3.3 IPSW for iPad mini or iPad air.
Once you’ve downloaded the firmware IPSW, you need to use iTunes to downgrade iOS 10 to iOS 9.3.3. It would take couple of minutes or hours depending to your internet speed and iOS 10 data.
Before starting downgrade iOS 10 process, make sure that you’ve disable passcode to prevent any iTunes error.
Note: If you face iTunes error, repeat the downgrade iOS10 process and report here with the iTunes Error code, we’d try hard to fix your issue with comments or email.
You may have upgraded to iOS 9.3.3 on your iPhone and iPad in hope of jailbreak 9.3.3 and this is quite expected specially when PanGu has demonstrated couple of videos on YouTube that proves the chance of next untethered jailbreak iOS 9.3.3.
Of course, there are some doubts because PanGu may wait for iOS 9.3.3 before thinking about release of iOS 9.3.3 jailbreak. If PanGu would think that these exploits may be useful in iOS 9.3.3, they may avoid release of jailbreak for iOS 9.3.3 and safe their vulnerabilities for the next firmware.
Now when, Apple released iOS 9.3.3 beta 3, PanGu has successfully jailbroken their iOS 9.3.3 new update with their tool successfully and this is also one of the key reason why PanGu haven’t released iOS 9.3.3 jailbreak till yet.
As far as we think, PanGu should release their untethered tool for iOS 9.3.3 because Apple may patch iOS 9.3.3 vulnerabilities any time in the future beta version of before releasing final version of iOS 9.3.3 as they’ve did it so many times in the past before releasing iOS 9.2.1, iOS 9.3 and so on.
There is one more reason why we’re not able to download or enjoy new jailbreak so early. The reason is, TaiG team is inactive since long time. They didn’t release any untethered tool for iOS 9 firmware till iOS 9.3.3. Whole jailbreak community was expecting that TaiG would be active in iOS 9.3.3 and since iOS 9.3.3 beta 3, TaiG is absence.
So, the whole work goes to PanGu side which is somewhat harder to manage. PanGu has to work on iOS 9.3.3 exploits and same time they have to think about iOS 9.3.3 jailbreak too which is something really hard to do.
Before releasing new firmware, Apple always patches all the exploits, vulnerabilities and loopholes from the final version and this is the reason why we’re unable to jailbreak iOS 9.3.3 and as well as all the previous version whether it is iOS 9 or iOS 8.
Now, PanGu has the chance to catch all the attention from Cydia users by releasing their untethered jailbreak iOS 9.3.3 before iOS 9.3.3 which would give the users another chance to downgrade iOS 9.3.3 to iOS 9.3.3 just because jailbreak 9.3.3.
Update 1: PanGu has updated their blog with a new post that claims the evidence of iOS 9.3.3 jailbreak which may be fall very soon.
Update 2: iH8snOw updates their untethered tool for iOS 9.3.3 jailbreak and they’ve successfully jailbroken the first beta of iOS 9.3.3.
Update 3: PanGu demonstrates iOS 9.3.3 jailbreak before iOS 9.3.3 update which could be a strong sign of iOS 9.3.3 jailbreak not possible. PanGu might be interesting only in iOS 9.3.3 as most of users would upgrade it to get most advance new features and this is how, PanGu can save their exploits for future version of iOS 9.3.3.
Would you jailbreak iOS 9.3.3 if it would be available for your iPad or iPhone???
Apple is just about to release iPhone 7 with three variant in which iPhone 7, i7 Plus and iPhone 7 Pro. And as always before release, the bunch of rumors coming from the web.
The users who are planning to buy new iPhone 7 Pro or other variant are confuse because it’s already rumored that iPhone 7 would just look like iPhone 6S and the difference would be one more deep blue color and iPhone 7 antenna lines.
Nowadays various leaks coming in a new videos that features iPhone 7 and here is another leaked iPhone 7 Pro which is compared with iPhone 6S variant. You can compare both of models side by side.
Interestingly major rumored and leaks are coming from China website Weibo. One of Chinese developer has uploaded YouTube video of iPhone 7 Pro comparing it with iPhone 6S that shows significant differences on the board.
Both the iPhones look same in terms of color and design as well as width in blow video and we can notice just a antenna lines which is different in iPhone 7 Pro which is gonna release soon by Apple.
We can notice one more changes in Camera size which is larger in iPhone 7 Pro vs iPhone 6S. Yeah, you may also notice the redesigned buttons specially those volume and Power related buttons.
You’d miss that 3.5mm jack which was available in iPhone 6S and i6s Plus related to audio and speaker. As this iPhone 7 Pro is in the same color vs iPhone 6S, we’re unable to demo that deep blue iPhone 7 variant.
The new iPhone 7 Pro, iPhone 7 Plus and regular sized iPhone7 is gonna be release this September, 2016. It’s widely rumored that iPhone 7 Plus would be clone of iPhone 6S and the different model would be iPhone 7 Pro which comes in two new colors.
The larger iPhone 7 Camera, bigger battery and new colors are the different comparing to previous iPhone 6S and couple of these features would attract new users in the USA, UK and Canada in the first place.
If you were waiting for the feature that allow you to delete or remove iOS stock applications then you’ve good time to go. Finally, Apple introduced the feature that allows users to delete or uninstall apps from iOS 10.
Yeah, the first beta and the second beta also confirm that users can actually delete apps from iOS 10 firmware and it can be reinstall easily when user want. Thus, you’ve win win situation to customize your iPhone as well as iPad too.
So if you think that you don’t need a bunch of iOS 10 stock apps and if you want to remove some of useless apps or game center, you can easily tap on that app and just tap again on the cross icon at the right of the app at top corner and delete it to free up storage or your iPhone or iPad.
Suppose, you think again some time later after deleting apps from iOS 10 that you need that particular app that you’ve removed earlier, you can easily go to Apple App Store and search that app by the name of that app as keyword in the search box and once you found it on Apple app store, just tap it to get it back, isn’t it simple?
There are bunch of stock apps available on iOS that we normally never use in daily life even in a life such as Game Center, Compass, Tips or News app. In this situation, iOS 10 allows you to uninstall apps from your iOS 10 platform and if you change your mind later, you can easily reinstall stock apps from Apple App Store for free.
Why You Should Not Delete Stock Apps
If you’ve Apple Watch, you know that it would sync your iPhone apps too. In such cases, if you’d remove any iPhone stock apps from iOS 10, it would be uninstalled automatically from Apple Watch too.
By removing Weather, News, Stocks apps, the data related to those apps won’t appear on notification center or anywhere else.
Suppose, you go to delete Calculator application, the Calculator app won’t be accessed within Control Center.
You may have noticed useless Contacts app which can be easily accessed within Phone app, so you can remove Contacts app and all the contacts would be access from Phone app too.
Music app is synced with your CarPlay so if you decide to remove it, you won’t be able to use it within CarPlay or Control Center.
Suppose you decide to delete Watch App, you’d be unable to use Apple Watch with your iPhone to receive calls or SMS or any alert of your iPhone data.
Tap and hold any stock app from your iPhone home screen.
Icon would start jingle, just tap on cross icon at the top right corner.
System would ask you to confirm, just tap on Delete again.
Suppose, you change your mind and wanna install any of deleted app from iPhone then just open App Store and tap on Search box. In the search box, type the name of your stock app that you wanna reinstall and tap enter. From the search result, choose that app and tap on get it icon. Done.
Smart Tip: You can easily lock any of stock apps or third party apps using App Locker. AppLocker is the Cydia tweak that can be used to lock down any application installed on your iPhone or iPad which can be access with pre defined password. So, if you’ve jailbroken device, install App Locker Cydia tweak.
You can comment below to ask anything related to remove apps from iOS.
Downgrade iOS 10 back to iOS 9.3.3 if you think the new firmware is buggy or your device can’t handle it…
What a incredible firmware Apple released this month to the public testers. I have not seen that Apple is opening the door of jailbreak apps in iOS platform and there are a bunch of tweaks added to the core design of iOS 10.
But any decision made in hurry can force you to go back. The same situation rising with iOS 10 users too. Most of the users who had upgraded their jailbroken firmware to iOS 10 to get bunch of customization have to downgrade iOS 10 to iOS 9.3.3 in hope that PanGu would release iOS 9.3.3 jailbreak.
User responses are great for iOS 10 however as iOS 10 still very unstable because of new features and beta stage, it needs time to grow up for final version. Meanwhile, PanGu also trying hard to get some attention with their iOS 10 jailbreak.
PanGu introduced Jailbreak iOS 10 which was really a great hope for all Cydia users who were waiting for the tweaks and apps. But at the same time, they indicated to release iOS 9.3.3 jailbreak first and this could be another great reason for users to downgrade iOS 10 to iOS 9.3.3.
To verify all these condition, we also had installed iOS 10 and found that there are really some awesome features available but we had tried iOS 10 on iPhone 5 which is not able to handle redesigned control center and notification center and the result is, it gets hanged multiple times while accessing control center and notification center. Another bug, I found is on iOS 10 lockscreen where widgets are not clearly appearing all the time.
In a research, it’s clear that large number of users who have upgraded their firmware to iOS 10 want to downgrade iOS 10 and restore iOS 9.3.3 for some reasons. We can predict that all above reasons may force them to downgrade iOS 10 to iOS 9.3.3. I would say iOS 9.3.2 is also the better choice if you’re waiting for PanGu iOS 9.3.2 jailbreak.
So you can go back to previous versions after downgrade iOS 10…
Downgrade iOS 10 to iOS 9.3.3
Or Downgrade iOS 10 to iOS 9.3.2
We’ve tried to mention each and every steps clearly with screenshots. You won’t feel hard to downgrade iOS 10 at any case, but before that you should know couple of things…
There are two options you can choose to go back. You can downgrade to iOS 9.3.3 from iOS 10 which is quite easy and most preferred firmware to restore because in this case you won’t need to download any IPSW. But, you need iOS 9.3.2 IPSW if you think you want to downgrade to iOS 9.3.2 from iOS 10.
Take backup to any external source where you can access separately from your iPhone or iPad. While downgrading iPhone, you should always keep backup of all contacts, SMS, Calendar entries and Photos.
iOS 9.3.2 would take more time as compared to iOS 9.3.3 because iOS 9.3.2 would be big in size with backup while iOS 9.3.3 is better option as you’d get fresh firmware after downgrade iOS 10.
You need Mac OS X or Windows operating system on your computer with iTunes to downgrade iOS 10 and restore previous firmware update.
Downgrade to iOS 9.3.3 from iOS 10 or Try iOS 9.3.2
We’d see how can we downgrade iOS 10 whether you decide to go back to iOS 9.3.3 or iOS 9.3.2. So let’s begin…
1. You need IPSW file which can make your downgrade process easy. To downgrade iOS 10, first download iOS 9.3.3 IPSW. Here you can choose iOS 9.3.2 IPSW files too if you want to downgrade to iOS 9.3.2. However, we’d recommend users to depend on iTunes to choose best firmware to restore. In that case, there isn’t any need of IPSW.
2. Do you know how to put iPhone into DFU Mode? I’m asking you because without putting your device into DFU mode. Google about how to put your device into DFU mode.
3. Once you put your device into DUI mode after connecting your device to your computer, iTunes would show above screen which would mention that you’re in Recovery mode.
4. Here, Hold down Alt or Option key on Mac OS X and you’d get below screen message where you need to tap on Check for Update or choose IPSW files which you’ve downloaded in the first step.
5. The next screen would ask you for final confirmation about downgrade iOS 10 to iOS 9.3.3 or downgrade to iOS 9.3.2. Here you must tap on “Restore and Update” button.
After following above steps, you won’t found any difficulty to downgrade iOS 10, bug if you still found any difficulties, you can move to comment section and make a comment and we’d help you for downgrade to iOS 9.3.3 from iOS 10.